Appendix, References and Bibliography

The author gratefully acknowledges the improvements resulting from the comments and suggestions made by Carol Powell, Metallurgist and Consultant to the Copper Development Association.

About the Author

Ron Strang,  Shipahm Valves Technical director and author of the website contentEur Ing J R C Strang BSc CEng FIMechE, graduated as a Mechanical Engineer from Aston University, Birmingham, UK in 1981. Since then he has worked in the design and development of valves, initially with Serck Audco Valves, Newport, Shropshire and then Orseal Valves in Bolton, Lancashire. For the last 13 years he has been employed as Technical Director at Shipham Valves in Hull. Shipham manufactures extensively in nickel-aluminium bronze, as did Orseal Valves. As a result of working with this and other seawater materials, he has many years experience of them and has built up an extensive collection of literature, some of which has been used for this website.



Appendix - Material Data

   shipham valves word logoPlease download the Material data sheets used for the calculations.


Appendix - Pressure-temperature calculation

Reference ASME B16.34-2004

For the cold working pressure of NAB to ASTM B148 UNS C95800

Tensile strength, 85 000 psi
Yield strength, 35 000 psi

S1, selected stress is the lower of:

(1) 60% x yield = 60% x 35 000 psi = 21 000 psi
(2) 1.25 x 25% x tensile = 1.25 x 25% x 85 000 psi = 26 560 psi

Therefore S1= 21 000 psi

For class 150, pr=115 and C1=1

pst = C1S1 pr / 8750

pst = 1 x 21 000 x 115 / 8 750 = 276 psi, 19 bar


Appendix - References and Bibliography

1. ASME B16.24-2001, Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings: Classes 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500, American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
2. ASME B16.34-2004, Valves – Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End, American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
3. ASME B16.5-2003, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings: NPS ½ Through NPS24 Metric/Inch Standard, American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
4. ASTM B148-97(2003), Standard specification for Aluminium Bronze Sand Castings, ASTM.
5. CDA, 1981, Aluminium Bronze Alloys Corrosion Resistance Guide, Publication No. 80, Copper Development Association.
6. EN 1092-3:2003, Flanges and their joints – Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and accessories, PN designated – Part 3: Copper alloy flanges, CEN.
7. EN 1759-3:2003, Flanges and their joints – Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and accessories, Class designated – Part 3: Copper alloy flanges, CEN.
8. EN1982:1999, Copper and copper alloys – Ingots and castings, CEN.
9. ES/247, 2002, Supplementary Technical Requirements for the Supply of Components in 6% Mo Austenitic, 22% Cr Duplex and 25% Cr Super Duplex Stainless Steel – ES/247 Rev 2 Oct 2002, Shell UK Exploration and Production.
10. Francis, R., 1999, ‘Coupling of superduplex stainless steel and cast nickel-aluminium bronze in sea water’, British Corrosion Journal, 1999, Vol 34 No 2, 139 – 144, IoM Communications.
11. Gallager, P., Malpas, R.P. & Shone, E.P., 1986, ‘Sea Water Handling Systems: Past, Present and Future’, Corrosion Protection of Materials in Sea Water Applications, NCC/SMOZ Workshop: Amsterdam 1986. Available from
12. HSE, 2003, Stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steel piping systems in hot chloride service, Safety Notice 3/2003, Health and Safety Executive, UK. Available from
13. Hunt, J. R. & Bellware, M. D., 1967, ‘Ocean Engineering Hardware Requires Copper-Nickel Alloys’, Transactions of the Third Annual MTS Conference, June 1967.
14. Kain, L.S., Marshall, D.G., Melton, D.G., Aylor, D.M., Hays, R.A. & Ferrara, R.J., 2004, ‘Corrosion, galling and wear testing of duplex and austenitic stainless steels for seawater valve applications’, Valve World, Aug 2004, KCI.
15. Meigh, H., 2000, Cast and Wrought Aluminium Bronzes: Properties, Processes and Structure, Copper Development Association / IOM Communications, London.
16. Norsok M-001, 2004, Norsok Standard M-001 Rev. 4 August, 2004 Material Selection, Norsok, available from
17. NPL, 1982, Guides to Good Practice in Corrosion Control – Pumps and Valves, National Physical Laboratory.
18. Oldfield, J.W. & Masters, G.L., 1996, Collation of Data Comparing Properties of Aluminium Bronze with Cast Stainless Steels and Ni-Resist in Offshore Sea Water Environments, CDA publication 115, Copper Development Association.
19. Smith, L., Celant, M., & Pourbaix, A., (2000), ‘A guideline to the successful use of duplex stainless steels for flowlines’, Duplex America 2000 conference, Stainless Steel World, KCI.
20. Todd, B., (?), Materials Selection for High Reliability Copper Alloy Seawater Systems, available from
21. Tuthill, A.H., 1987, ‘Guidelines for the use of copper alloys in seawater’, Materials Performance, Vol 26 No 9 12-22, NACE, Houston, Texas. Available from .
22. Tuthill, A.H., Schillmoller, C.M., 1965, ‘Guidelines for the Selection of Marine Materials’, The Ocean Science and Ocean Engineering Conference, June 1965, Marine Technology Society.
23. Tystad, M, 1997, ‘Application of duplex stainless steel in the offshore industry’, Duplex Stainless Steels, 1997, Stainless Steel World, KCI.

Several other material standards have been referred to in passing: identification by the standard number used should suffice.


Please click here to download the Chinese translation of the paper.

Please click here to download the Russian translation of the paper.


Site Map